welding technology for industrial production in India making the strong base for the growth of India. The variety of welding technology for different metals are available. Welding discovered by humankind back in 3,000 BC when the heat was used to fuse metals. Nowadays several welding types are put to use where the application of high heat and pressure, along with filler metal, to create a weld pool between two metals, which on cooling lead on to a strong joint or weld is made. The outcome of welding is always the same, but the methods and equipment used to create the joint varies. The popular welding technology is as follows:
A. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
B. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
C. Fluxed-Cored Arc Welding
D. Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
E. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) / TIG
F. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
A.. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) / Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW): This is one of the most common and oldest arc welding technology dates back to 1890s. Here the arc is created when electricity passed through the coated tip of the electrode and touches the base metal. The arc is maintained when the electrode is withdrawn. The heat of the arc lead on to melting of the electrode and form the weld pool with the molten metal which on cooling solidify to make the fusion of the surface or weld.
Common Uses Pipelines, Shipbuilding, Construction, Farm Machinery, and Underwater Welding.
Advantages. Need Basic portable equipment, used for various types, and thickness of metals, Good for working outdoors
B.. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW): In the Gas Metal Arc Welding the electrode wire is fed continuously through the welding gun into the welding pool. The GMAW protect the arc from atmospheric impurities with the help of shielding gas which is also passed continuously through the welding gun. The two subtypes of GMAW are metal inert gas (MIG) welding and metal active gas (MAG) welding. The MIG uses Argon and Helium gases and is best for Aluminium welding and other nonferrous material. MAG uses a combination of Argon, oxygen and carbon dioxide in different combinations and it is useful in welding steel.
Common Uses. Pipe welding and pipe joints Automotive production and maintenance, Manufacturing, Shipbuilding, Construction, Railroad tracks, and underwater welding.
Advantages. Can be semi-automatic or automatic, Good on thin metals or Thick joints, Minimal cleanup and not prone to chipping, Cost effective and fast welding, the minimal wastage in consumables, Flexibility in any weld position
C.. Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW):
The Flux-Cored Arc Welding
uses a machine where the electrode is fed continuously into the welding zone. The electrode here used are filled with flux which is used to prevent the contamination of the weld one from atmospheric impurities.FCAW is ideal for the dense sections of one inch or thicker because it has a higher weld metal deposition.
Common Uses. Pipelines welding, General repairs, Shipbuilding, Manufacturing, and Underwater welding.
Advantages. Quicker process than SMAW, Versatile as can be an automatic or semiautomatic process, Mobile process as no need to carry cylinder.
D.. Plasma Arc Welding (PAW): Plasma arc welding and Tungsten arc welding have a lot common. In both the methods the arc is formed between non-consumable electrode Tungsten and base metal and shielding gas is employed to protect the weld zone PAW also uses a plasma gas which is separated from the shielding gas by placing the electrode in the body of the torch. The plasma arc is then constricted by a copper nozzle.
Common Uses. High-speed sheet welding, Microplasma welding, Keyhole welding, Medical Equipment, Electronics, Aerospace, Automotive, and Welding coated steel.
Advantages. High welding speed and penetration, Fast, Cost-effective, Minimal Electrode contamination, The reliable start of the arc, Wide range of operating mode, Good for small precision welding, Requires less skilled welder.
E.. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding or Tungsten Inert Gas welding: It produces the arc with Tungsten rod and inert gases are used to protect the weld. The welder controls the heat with foot pedal by feeding a thin wire of filler metal into the weld one. This produce is concise and precise welding.
Common Uses Aerospace industry, Automotive construction, and repair, Art, Nuclear, Pharmaceutical, Nascar, Ship fitting
Advantages. Produces weld without sparks, smoke or fumes Can be used on thin or thick metals, Good for the application requires attractive appearance, Good or detailed designs or curves. Useful for various metals like steel, Bronze, Nickel, Brass, Copper, Magnesium and gold
F.. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW): The submerged ARC welding machine uses a consumable electrode wire through a gun into the weld pool which serves as both arc and filler material. The atmospheric protection comes from the flux which is placed over the surface of the metal. The resulting slag is later removed when finished the work.
Common Uses. Machine component or heavy industry, Vessels and tanks for the pressure and storage use, Shipbuilding, Wind tower production.
Advantages. The technique is 4 to10 times faster than SMAW, Semi or fully automatic, High thermal efficiency, Spatter free process.