At the beginning of the journey to learn welding more the information, the more it becomes easy. Every possible information available about the welding types that exist and how easy or difficult they are to learn may be a help to the learner. The certain types of welding processes produce a clean bead very appealing visually and may not need any cleaning while others produce the opposite exactly. The process largely depends upon the type of metal uses for welding following types are the commonest process of welding.
Various Types of Welding Processes
This is also called as Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). The tungsten metal, a non-consumable electrode is used in this type off welding. In this welding, we may not require any filler wire and two metals can be joined together by a non-consumable electrode only. We can use filler wire if desire but that filler wire needs to be fed by hand only.
The shielding gas to protect the weld zone is needed here. This gas may be available in the form of a tank or cylinder. The TIG welding process to be better performed indoors and always away from elements.
The welded zone by TIG gives a very clean bead and does not require any cleaning as this welding is almost spatter free. All these traits in TIG welding make it a difficult welding process to be better reserved for the experienced welders only. When we need a high-quality finish and good quality of manufacturing then TIG may be the best advice.
The Metal Inert Gas (MIG) or Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is the process very easy to master and can easily be adopted by the beginner and new welder. This process is a prompt welding process where a continuous flow of shielding gas is supplied at the welding zone and filler wire is instilled at the welding site by a wire feeder. This is a process better for outdoor purposes and can weld many different types of metals at a different thickness. This is a versatile type of welding process. The filler wire which fed on spool here is a metal that acts as an electrode to create an arc from the tip of the wire and the base metal. This act as a filler wire and creates a weld. The continuous supply of filler wire at the requisite speed may make it a preferred welding process for the beginner. The welding quality of this process is quite tight and appealing visually. This welding process is very useful for mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum.
Stick/ ARC Welding
This is also called as Shielded- Metal Arc Welding (SMAW). This process is updating and improving since 1930 and still remains a popular form of welding due to its low cost and easy learning. The flux coated electrode is used and the tip of the electrode and base metal ignite the arc to produce a weld while the electrode is used as a filler to join the two surfaces. This process produces a weld zone that is not very neat and clean and needs a lot of work to make it visually pleasant. The fumes from the core and spatter make it suitable for outdoors only. The replaceable electrode once melts produce the fume to protect the weld zone from oxidation while metal from the electrode act as filler metal to join the two surfaces. On cooling the gas settles on the surfaces of metal produce slag.
This process does not require any gas and it can work very well outdoor and even in bad weather as wind and rain. This process is useful on painted, dirty, and rusted surfaces and makes it a great choice in equipment repairs. The types of metals need different types of the electrode to make the welding simple. This is not a choice for the thinner metal. This is a highly skilled welding process
Flux -Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
This process is similar to the MIG welding process. The equipment and wire feeding are similar in both processes. The power supply source for FCAW and MIG welding is similar in both of them. Both the process are semiautomatic and have very high production. The MIG welder can perform double duty as FCAW welder as well. The spool of wire used in both process but in FCAW the wire has a core of flux that creates a shielding around the weld zone and eliminate the need of the shielding gas. This is a better-suited procedure for thicker and heavier metals as it is a high heat process of welding. There is generally no waste and a comparatively low-cost process where there is no need for any external gas. There may remain a little slag left over after the process which may be beautiful finish weld after a small cleaning.
Plasma Arc Welding
This is a welding process similar to TIG welding where a smaller arc with more precision of the welding is done. Here a different torch with a very high temperature is needed. The plasma is created when gas is pressurized inside the gun or wand. The ionized plasma once electrically conductive allows the arc to make it incredibly higher temperature leading to the melting of the base metals. The plasma arc thus performs welding without filler metal as the TIG welding process. This process produces a deep penetration, strong and beautiful weld aesthetically.
Laser Beam Welding
Here laser is used as a heat source to create the weld. It is used for metals and thermoplastics such as carbon steels, stainless steel, aluminum, and titanium. As this is easily automated with robotics, therefore, may be used in automotive industries.
Electronic Beam Welding
This type of welding performed generally in a vacuum where a high-velocity beam of electrons creates heat through kinetic energy leading to the joining of two surfaces.
Atomic Hydrogen Welding
This used to be called arc-atom welding and an order form that has been replaced by MIG welding. This was the method where hydrogen gas used to shield two tungsten electrodes where they could achieve a temperature of acetylene magnitude.
This is an advance process the thin edge of the metal plates joined together vertically. This is an automated process and needs a lot of experience and expertise.